c. 1733, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]
d. Nov. 11, 1810, Strand-on-the-Green, Middlesex, Eng.
also spelled Johann Zoffani, original name PROBABLY JOHANN JOSEPH ZAUFFELY,
also spelled ZAUPHALY,
German-born portrait painter who in late 18th-century England made his
reputation with paintings depicting episodes from contemporary theatre
and with portraits and conversation pieces (i.e., paintings of groups
of people in their customary surroundings). Zoffany, after studying in
Germany and Italy, went to England about 1758. Following the lead of William
Hogarth, he painted scenes from London's theatrical productions. Notable
in this genre are his paintings of the famed actor David Garrick in his
many West End successes--e.g., "The Farmer's Return" (1762). His portraits
were popular with George III, who became his patron and for whom he produced
"Queen Charlotte with Her Sons, the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York."
In 1772 Zoffany went to Italy with the king's financial help and there,
during a seven-year stay, executed "The Tribuna of the Uffizi" (1780)
for the royal family. This celebrated work shows a group of connoisseurs
admiring paintings and sculptures in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. He
worked as a portraitist in India from 1783 to 1789, and when he returned
to England he painted such notable portraits as "Charles Towneley Among
His Marbles" (1790). Zoffany was a founder-member of the Royal Academy
(1768). He possessed brilliant technical skills and introduced greater
liveliness and personal anecdote into English conversation pieces.
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